新人购枪,联邦4473表格(Form 4473)填写指南

虽说在美国,平民拥枪传统源远流长,并以宪法第二修正案的形式深植于美利坚根本大法之中,但枪械交易也并非像别国吃瓜群众以为的那样,如同集市买菜或网上清购物车般轻而易举。

作为一个联邦制国家,美国既有统管全国的联邦法律,又有各个州市郡县的本地法律。而购枪必须同时遵守联邦法律和本地法律。所以,要想在美国合法购枪,需要先弄清相关法律法规和各地政府要求。要了解后者,最简单易行的方式,便是向当地相关机构,一般是警务部门,或是本地枪店询问。

而至于前者,联邦层面的枪械买卖由美国烟酒枪炮及爆裂物管理局(Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives,缩写ATF)统一管理。ATF要求个人在购枪时填写4473表格,并且接受必要的背景审查,不满足购枪条件者,审查会被拒绝。以下,为大家粗略过一下4473填写流程,仅供大家信息了解之用。

注意,由于这是联邦法律要求(federal requirement),所以,无论你是什么身份(公民、绿卡、各类签证),在哪买枪,买什么枪,无一例外都要在购买现场,亲自填写4473表。

它是一个制式表格,一式六页。

问题1到15,由买家自己填写,涉及到各类个人背景信息。填问题的时候不要多想,据实以答即可。根据笔者过往卖枪的经验,许多新人购枪时经常由于想得太多,反而答错了问题。

例如:11题的a项,

Are you the actual transferee/buyer of the firearm(s) listed on this form? Warning: You are not the actual transferee/buyer if you are acquiring the firearm(s) on behalf of another person. If you are not the actual transferee/buyer, the licensee cannot transfer the firearm(s) to you. Exception: If you are picking up a repaired firearm(s) for another person, you are not required to answer 11.a. and may proceed to question 11.b. (See Instructions for Question 11.a.)

实际上是在问:嘿,你就是那个要买枪的人吧?

绝大多数情况下,答案一定是:当然啦!选大大的YES。

即使这把枪是你为亲人伴侣、七姑八舅精心选购的礼物,也不需要怀疑:咦,这枪是给谁谁谁的,不是我的,我还是那个买枪的人吗?买枪的人是你是你还是你,因为礼物-枪是你要买的,没送出去之前,东西也还是你的,所以,说白了,枪还是你自己为自己买的。注意:这与“替人买枪”的情况天差地别。如果是别人把钱给你,你去替他买枪,这就构成了所谓的straw purchase。联邦法律可因此追究你的刑事责任,简单说,枪只给自己买就对了,不要替别人买

以上例子,是要强调读题审题的重要性。记得,要诚实的回答,因为你在回答一个联邦的问件,被查出不诚实,可是有法律责任的呦。

对于华人群体而言,问题最多的,就是联邦法律是否允许持非移民签证(例如:F1、H1B等)的人们购入枪支。而这个问题的答案,也在4473上。

Question 18.c. Exceptions to the Nonimmigrant Alien Prohibition and Acceptable Documentation: An alien admitted to the United States under a nonimmigrant visa is not prohibited from purchasing, receiving, or possessing a firearm if the alien: (1) is in possession of a hunting license or permit lawfully issued by the Federal Government, a State or local government, or an Indian tribe federally recognized by the Bureau of Indian Affairs, which is valid and unexpired; (2) was admitted to the United States for lawful hunting or sporting purposes; (3) has received a waiver from the prohibition from the Attorney General of the United States; (4) is an official representative of a foreign government who is accredited to the United States Government or the Government’s mission to an international organization having its ATF E-Form 4473 (5300.9) Revised October 2016 headquarters in the United States; (5) is an official representative of a foreign government who is en route to or from another country to which that alien is accredited; (6) is an official of a foreign government or a distinguished foreign visitor who has been so designated by the Department of State; or (7) is a foreign law enforcement officer of a friendly foreign government entering the United States on official law enforcement business.

从以上的信息来看,即使是非移民签证身份,只要持有有效的打猎执照跟许可证,便可以合法地购买特定枪支。通常来说,NICS(National Instant Criminal Background Check System)要再联系美国移民局(USCIS),确认买枪人的合法身份,正常情况下,大多会在一两天内有结论。

联邦背景调查的信息来源便是4473表格上所填写的内容。一般来说,输入信息后马上就有回复。有两种结果。

  • 一是“Proceed”。恭喜你,你在联邦的眼里是个可以信赖的人,你就可以带上你新进购入的宝贝回家了。
  • 二是“Delay”,这种情况除了会让你心里小激动一下,“我去,难道我做了啥坏事自己都忘了?我是个坏人吗?警察是不是马上就会出现把我抓走?”实际上大可不必担心,多数情况下,是因为重名重姓(请不要赖爹妈),政府的系统有些懵逼,所以要人工检测,背景调查便会慢一些。

总而言之,就如同大家在美国填的各色各样的表一样,4473 并没有什么可怕的,秉着诚实认真的态度,好好回答就不会有问题。许多新人初次购枪之时,会觉得这是一件非常繁琐的事,但是静下心来耐心走完一遍,就会发现,并非什么登天难事。

最后,欢迎大家加入持枪者的行列,在美国的华人是到了该武装起来的时候了。

更多ATF Form4473的解释,请看下面的视频哟。

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